Frontend Frameworks VS Handcrafted UI

Modern web user interfaces often are single-page applications (SPAs), written in JavaScript, based on frameworks like React, Angular or vue.js. But what is rendered in the browser is still good old HTML and CSS. Therefore, even in times of SPAs, as at the beginning of the web, markup for wrapping the actual content must be written (HTML). As well as there have to be rules for how the contents are positioned and styled (CSS).